Chronicle

Cieplice Śląskie Zdrój is one of the best known Silesian towns, not only in Poland, but also abroad. Their history is very interesting. So we wonder why it wasn't printed in polish? Information about history of Cieplice scattered in a number of publications is often hard to get or even unavailible for average tourist or someone who loves this region of Poland. The purpose of publicating this calendarium is to fill this gap. It's not a dissertation. We would like the reader to pay attention topmost important events from the past, especially to problems which are connected with history of spa. So here goes: building new spa houses, discovering new springs, famous people (especially from Poland) visiting spa.

This calendarium hasn't been completed yet. First because choosing problems and events was subjective, second because of availible literature. But here you can find problems which haven't been raised before.

We hope calendarium presented here make you better know history of Cieplice and is a base for futher researches. Especially when the big part of this history is still uncovered.

1175

As the legend says - prince Bolesław Wielki was hunting in the wood. Suddenly he saw a wounded deer and started a chase. He followed the deer and found hot springs in a deep wood. Prince bade his people to build a lodge near springs. This event is supposed to give the origin of Cieplice.

1281

Prince Bernard Lwówecki gave a village Calidus Fons (hot spring) to with 250 acres meadows, woods and fields to Joannites. Soon there appeared a hospital near the spring and inhabitants didn't have to pay taxes for 20 years.
Joannites bought 100 acres wasteland in Gory Izerskie, perhabs they thought about exploatation this area.

1288

With an agreement of prince Bolko I Świdnicko-Jaworski Joannites built an inn "for use and profit for hot springs and order" in Malinnik (Herischdorf).

1318

There was first hint about church in Cieplice in Gabriel di Rimmi's chancel register. The town was named Warm Waters (orig. Cheplevode).

1381

Bolko II Świdnicko-Jaworski's knight - Gotsche Shoff bought Cieplice from widow Agnieszka. Joannites who had been there earlier resigned from their rights to that area because of unknown reasons.

1403

Knight Gotsche Shoff - founder of Schaff Gotsch house founded parish and donated one of 2 springs and other goodsfor 4 monks from cysterian cloister in Krzeszów.

1418

There was first inn opened in Cieplice

1422

Supposedly there was cobbler who was selling boots for 3 grosze per pair and shoes for 12-14 grosze per pair.

1426

Husites invaded Jelenia Góra's dale including Cieplice. Fortunately people hid in castle Chojnik and in Jelenia Góra.

1431

In one of chronicles there's a hint that in this year one Franz Walter from Krzeszów was a teacher in Cieplice, but the school was founded there probably when the cysterian presbytery appeared.

1440

It's said that in Cieplice they were making vodka not for drink but for medical uses only.

1515

Kaspar Schaffgotsch built a temple near church. The temple became a tomb from that time.

1524

In neighbourhood village - Malinnik was protestant faith discrict ruled by Pankracy Weisig. It spread over Cieplice. It's activity was banned after thirty-year war.

1537

Thank to abbot Michał from Krzeszów in Cieplice was built house of stone, which at the beginning was resident by prelates from Krzeszów, then was for spa guests.

1547

Big fire damaged many monastery buildings and an old wooden church.

1569

Doctor Caspar Hoffman from Brandenburgia made the first scientific description of spa, in which he made a remark about count spa (for everyone especially for poor people) and monastery spa (rather for rich ones). There's also known that ill people used bathes, drank water from springs, and a doctor with other medical staff looked after them.

1570

Monastery spring was housed with stones.

1575

The Schaffgotsch family built a big, three-wheeled mill.

1582

Another fire in monastery.

1586

Build of present monastery was started and it lasted a couple of years.

1591

There was remark about first spa visitor - Helena z Kluczników Kałęcka. She died during treatment. His husband, major of Warsaw - Albert Kałęcki bought her a commemorative plaque with an epitafium. Today it doesn't exist.

1599

Caspar Elbert initiated build of larger container for monastery spring with extanding building commanding it and built changing rooms for spa visitors at the same time.

1607

There was publicated a research in Zgorzelec by Kaspar Schwenckfeldt - doctor from Cieplice who was interested in fauna and flora of Karkonosze Mountains. The topic of this research was "Springs of Jelenia Góra, located in Silesia at the foot of Karkonosze Mountains...". It was first so precise scientific description of spa and therapeutic properties of its springs.

1618

There was first spa charter issued, which author was doctor Martin Pansa from Trzebnica.

1625

Famous leader Stanisław Koniecpolski came to spa for a treatment.

1627

Jan Ulryk Schaffgotsch bade pull down an old, wooden house of great baths and he has built a health pavilon there. It was a round building with 2 entries, with changing-room. It served spa visitors till the beginning of XX century.

1653

Two polish magnates: Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł and Krzysztof Opaliński came to spa for treatment. They came with wives and other companies but not in the same time.

1654

Protestants from Cieplice were deprived of pastors. Their last representative in that century was Elias Breithor.
In that year during three-weeks-lasting treatment Jan Rosicki - chancellor of Polish Kingdom was curing his old wound on his leg.

1662

Discerning big material profits which could be get from Cieplice springs, Bernard Rosa - abbot from Krzeszów demolished old monastery house of spa and he has built new, central and comfortable house. Works lasted till year 1664.

1665

There was another book publicated about spa by doctor Wojciech Zindel.

1677

Prince Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł with his big retinue came to Cieplice. His commpanion - Teodor Billewicz - nobleman from Żmudź wrote first known polish description of spa.

1678

People from Cieplice with common efforts erected a dam on Kamienna river.

1682

Krzysztof Scholtz who were keeping a chronickle of Cieplice wrote: "In july comes here (...) dignified lord from Poland. Very man's - everytime. He used to live in a red house in abbey. Really lady-killer, not soon someone like him comes here". It was about chancellor Wielopolski.

1687

Polish queen Marysieńka Sobieska with her children and numerous retinue came to spa for treatment.

1689

According to Marcin from Lubawka's project, cysterians built new spa house in a place where the old one used to be. It was named "The Long House". Taxes were raised in order to pay for its build . That caused mutiny amoung peasants.

1692

Polish primate - Michał Radziejowski came to Cieplice.

1702

Supposedly in that year grinders from Cieplice established their own guild. Flood in that year was so big that water forced into baths. Another polish visitation - this time came son of king Jan III Sobieski - Jakub.

1709

Eliasz Scholtz - builder from Bolesławiec started building separated belfry near church in Cieplice. It was finished in 1711.

1711

Big fire damaged church and baths in Cieplice. Kaspar Jentsch - builder from Jelenia Gora undertook its reconstruction.

1715

The family of Schaffgotsch put taxes on Cieplice and nearest areas.

1733

There was a library set up, famous from its silesiacs.

1740

Merchants' Collegium called for all linen weavers and other labourers who were occupied with making linen. They came and disscused their opinions about changes in linen regulations concernig improvement of products.

1741

Prussian authorities classified Cieplice to fair towns.

1742

Prussian king - Fryderyk II came to power and he started to reign in Silesia. He agreed to build an evangelic temple in Cieplice. First pastor was Adam Gotfryd Thebesius. In Cieplice worked 40 glass grinders and in summer there were more. They could sell their products to a numerous spa visitors.

1758

Polish magnate from Wielkopolska - Rafar Gurowski founded under the monument of St. Jan Nepomucen postument with an inscription. He was also an author of epitafium for his friend Jaraczewski who died there during a treatment. Unfortunately plaque with epitafium dissapeared in 70's of our century.

1774

They run building of evangelic-augsburgian church and it lasted till 1777.

1777

27 of october Schaffgotsch Palace was completely damaged by a fire.

1781

Build of new road linking Jelenia Góra and Cieplice was started. It came through Malinnik. The old one came near left shore of Kamienna river.

1784

According to architect from Opole - Jan Jerzy Rudolf's project, reconstruction of Schaffgotsch Palace (damaged 7 years earlier by fire) started and finished in 1788. The palace exist today.

1797

In spa park they started to build "Gallery" according to project from Carl Gottfried. It finished in 1800.

1800

Prussian king Fryderyk Wilhelm III and queen Luiza came to spa and they were here 16 and 17 of august.

1802

According to Kirschtein's project (he was king's building inspector from Wrocław) Schaffgotsch family built house with showers, connected to swimming pool. Spa visitors really liked it so in 1853 it moved to larger premises.

1806/07

Napoleon Bonaparte's army invaded Silesia including Cieplice where they conquered count palace. They also got high contributions, not only in money. People from Cieplice had to give the army 2400 pair boots in a short time.

1808

Hugo Kołłątaj was in Cieplice, where he wrote his "Remarks of today's place of this part of polish land which started to be named Księstwo Warszawskie after peace in Tylża". It was his second visit in Cieplice, the first was in 1792.

1809

Countess Juliana Schaffgotsch founded craft school for girls in Cieplice.

1810

Prussian authorities took over monastery's goods in whole Silesia, so in Cieplice too.

1812

In spite of poor finance situation (contribution for french armies) count Leopold Schaffgotsch bought from country old monastery goods in Cieplice for for 62 000 talars. He was the only lawful owner of spa in Cieplice.

1814

Post director in Jelenia Góra run his private business post communication between Jelenia Góra and Cieplice. At the beginning coaches were going three times a day, then 6 times a day in summer season.

1816

Princess Izabela z Flemingów Czartoryska came to Cieplice. She described her sojourn which lasted 3 weeks in her diary. It was published in 1868 as "With a coach through Lower Silesia. Diary of journey to Cieplice in the year 1816".

1824

Lodge "Near a hot spring" was established. New bath house was built and it was named Leopold's Baths. Its designer was A. Mallickh.

1834

1 of july Schaffgotsch's Library was opened.

1836

According to Albert Tollberg's project a house of theatre was built. Till that time actors had been played in different places. Theatre Fellowship had been existed in Cieplice since 1804.

1837

Bogumił Korn (born in 1765) came for a treatment and he died in 23 of august. He was a publisher and bookseller and he has his own printing house, which printed polish books.

1841

Post was opened in Cieplice

1844

There was a little factory in Cieplice which producted surgeon stuff. It was later moved to Jelenia Góra.

1845

There was fellowship "Verein fur Warmbrunn und Umgegend" (for Cieplice and nearest area) established in Cieplice. Their purpose was to improve situation of poor people in administrative discrict. Police liquidated so-called socialist-communist "conspiracy of Cieplice". There was only 7 members with Franciszek Wurm headed.

1847

In august came: Wincenty Pol, Kornel Ujejski with czech professor of fizjology - Jan Purkyne. Today the big stone in Park Norweski reminds that meeting.

1848

Crowd forced Schaffgotsch Family to cut taxes. Text of this resign, printed on posters was first printing without censore in Cieplice. That peasants' mutiny was the beginning of feudal movement in this area and was one of elements of "Spring of Nations".

1849

16 graves came to Cieplice from church in Radomierz. Those graves were placed near church in Cieplice and and on the plaques were names Schaffgotsch only.

1850

In Wrocław printing house "Kornów" first polish mountain guide - "Warmbrunn and neighbourhood" was printed. Its author was Rozalia Saulson who had been in Cieplice in 1849.

1851

15 of May new spring "Neue Quelle" was found 60 metres under. It was giving 70 litres water for a minute (with temperature 44.3C). Drill works started in 1849 with eng. Milch from Kolonia headed. In that year poet - Bogusz Zygmunt Stęczyński was in Cieplice, who later wrote "Śląsk i Sudety".

1854

Henryk Fullner found little craft workshop, he repaired paper production machines. Some time later his workshop moved to larger paper manufacture.

1858

In place of old monastery yard new bath house was built. It was named "Leopold's Baths".

1865

On 9 of October first train arraived to Rybnica (line: Zgorzelec - Lubań - Rybnica, then also to Jelenia Góra in next year) so spa visitors from deep Germany could get with that new communication into spa.

1866

"Militarkurhaus" was founded. Later it changed to St. Jadwiga's Hospital.

1875

Voluntary Fire Brigade was established.

1876

Count Ludwik Schaffgotsch allowed people to see his ornitology collection.

1880

There was 10 horses and 20 coaches going from Cieplice to Jelenia Góra Towarzystwo Karkonoskie - RGV (Karkonosze Fellowship) was established.

1882

First number of local news - Warmrunner Nachriten (Cieplice News) was printed.

1883

There was another spring found 155 metres under. It was named "Marysieńka" and it still exist with temerature of water - 35 C.

1885

There was gas pipeline built from Jelenia Góra to Cieplice.

1891

At 1 of July there was first train going between Jelenia Góra and Cieplice. Władysław Bejza - writer and traveller was in Cieplice and in Karkonosze Mountains. In his book "W Górach Olbrzymich" ( In the Giant Mountains) he wrote 5 pages about spa in Cieplice.

1897

On line Jelenia Góra - Cieplice - Sobieszów gas tram started to go. Big flood struck Cieplice and made many damages.

1900

10 of February first electric tram went to Cieplice.

1902

In 1902-1935 "Rundschau fur Bad Warmbrunn" was publicated. In november there was famous wood-sculpture school (Holzschnittschule) opened.

1903

17 of May in Jelenia Góra was first consumers' co-operative established which wanted to improve situation of many people.

1904

17 of May in Jelenia Góra was first consumers' co-operative established which wanted to improve situation of many people.

1909

Cieplice had 2 cars - omnibusses for spa visitors.

1914

Tram line runned between Cieplice and Podgórzyn. It was named "Valley Tram Line" (Talbahn). It had a big importance for increasing number of spa visitors.

1914-1918

In the years of I World War spa houses changed into hospitals - 40 beds in "The Long House" and 60 in "Triedrichsbad".

1915

People first went down from Sołtysia Mt.

1921

Cyryl dell Antonio - Italian from southern Tyrol headed wood-sculpture school. He made it famous again.

1923

There was inflation in Cieplice. Schaffgotsch Family spent their own inflation money, chronickel wrote that one pound of pork costed 2.6 billions mark and box of matches costed 500 millions marks.

1927

There was an electric train going between Jelenia Góra - Cieplice - Szklarska Poręba.

1931

New modern spa house was built in the middle of spa.

1935

Cieplice changed from spa to town.

1941

Nearest discrict - Malinnik (Herischdorf) lost its independence and was added to Cieplice.

1945

The coming end of war and fear of Russians caused that Schaffgotsch family abandoned their palace. The Red Army came into town at 8 of may and russian war comendant came to power. Cieplice had 7878 inhabitants. In june mayor of Cieplice was Jan Stegert and 16 of September was first polish school opened. Gradually Poles were taking over factories from Russians. Many polish settlers came. At the end of that year there was about 5000 settlers.

Ivo Łaborewicz jgora@ap.wroc.pl

The majority of publications of Cieplice is placed on site www.ap.wroc.pl/strony/jgora/jgora.htm.

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